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Guidelines for Authors

Guidelines to prepare a Manuscript:

Cover Letter

The Author should apply one page cover letter that:

  • Concisely summarizes why your paper is a valuable addition to the scientific literature
  • Specifies the type of article you are submitting (for example, research article, systematic review, meta-analysis, case study)
  • Gives the complete details of the Corresponding author (address for correspondence, contact number in case of urgent query).

Manuscript Organization

The length of a submitted paper should be commensurate with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, of the work. The manuscript should have 2000 - 2500 words. The manuscript has to be submitted in the single column and should have the following layout or divisions:

Manuscripts should begin with the ordered sections:

  • Title
  • Authors
  • Affiliations
  • Abstract
  • Ntroduction

And end with the sections of:

  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Ables
  • The title, authors, and affiliations should all be included on a title page as the first page of the manuscript file.

Authors and Affiliations

All author names should be listed in the following order:

  • First names (or initials, if used),
  • Middle names (or initials, if used), and
  • Last names (surname, family name)

Each author should list an associated department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all author names and affiliations should be listed at the end of the article.


This section highlights the main points of the article, outlines the results and conclusions and elucidates the significance of the results (Note that no references should be cited in the abstract)


There should be minimum of three and maximum of five keywords. Section Headings


The introduction section should:

  • Provide background that puts the manuscript into context and allows readers outside the field to understand the purpose and significance of the study
  • Define the problem addressed and why it is important
  • Include a brief review of the key literature
  • Conclude with a brief statement of the overall aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved

Materials and Methods

In the materials and methods section, the past is more natural because you are describing work that is already complete at the time of writing. Thus, it is simply a description of your actions.

Result and Discussion

This section should be placed separately. It must represent sufficient experimental data to enable the experiments to be repeated. Authors must notify the main findings of the research, providing a clear explanation of their significance and relevance.


This section should contain a short conclusion text.


This section should contain a precise and short acknowledgment text.

Figures, Tables and Schemes

There should be no spelling errors\typo in the artwork in the Figures. All the Figures and Tables are to be numbered and should be suitably cited in the text at their appropriate description, e.g., Figure 1 and Tables 1 and 3.


Style of Text Citation

References within the text may be given either as numbers within square brackets, e.g. 'It has been proven [15-18] ...' or 'Williams [1,4] has demonstrated that ...' or as superscript numbers, e.g. 'it has been shown in tests that pigs can fly 1. 'Whichever style you use, pleas

• Reference lists should appear at the end of each paper

• List references in the order in which they appear in the text

• Order the items within each reference (author(s) surname(s), initials, journal article title, journal title, volume number and page range) in a consistent way. Please ensure that, if using this system, your list of references is complete and correct, as it is very time-consuming and expensive to amend on page-proofs if references are added or deleted

Examples of Vancouver References

Please note, the examples below are intended to be a guide only. The exact style used here will not necessarily be imposed if you have used a consistent, orderly and unambiguous system.

Reference to a Journal Publication Peter

I K, Paul KI. Causes and Prevention of Infertility. Int J Med Biomed Res. 2009; 21:245-248p.

Journal Publication (to be published)

E. H. Miller. A Note on Reflector Arrays. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., to be published.

Reference to a Book:

Peter IK, Paul KI. Statistical Methods, 2nd Ed. Michael Joanna Publications: Nigeria; 1985.

 Reference to a Chapter in an Edited Book:

Peter I.K, Paul K.I. Sampling Methods, In: Statistical Methods, 2nd Edn. Michael Joanna Publications:

Nigeria; 1999. 281-304p.

Reference to a Thesis:

Ramadurg Y.U. A study of health status of geriatric population in rural area of Nagamangalataluk, Mandya district, Karnataka State. MD thesis. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science, Bengaluru.


Referencing Pattern

References should be given at the end of the manuscript. Abbreviated names of journals should be used. References should be cited in their present language, and should not be translated. The reference list should only include works that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications (or any unpublished work) should only be mentioned in the text. References could include following publications:

Journal Article:

One Author:

Spencer J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Med Educ 2005; 89: 548-49.

Two or Three Authors:

Salwachter AR, Freischlag JA, Sawyer RG. The training needs and priorities of male and female surgeons and surgeons and their trainees. J Am CollSurg 2005; 201: 199-205.

More than Three Authors:

Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern P et al. Cochlear changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133: 100-106.


A Single Author:

Lugalla JB. Poverty, AIDS, and Street Children in East Africa. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2003.

Two or Three Authors:

Rip PJ, Tear LK. Modern Conventions in Stitches. 9th Ed. Cambridge, MA: Suture Books, 2005.

More than Three Authors:

Greg AM, Marshall KC, Peters NH et al. Raising Large Families. San Francisco, CA: Brady Limited, 2006.

Style for Books with an Editor(s):

Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL (Eds.). Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Style for a Book Chapter:

O'Brien C. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL (Eds.). Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005: 607-29.

Dissertation/ Thesis

Borkowski MM. Infant Sleep and Feeding: A Telephone Survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University, 2002.

Conference/ Proceedings

Braveman P, Cubbin C, Marchi KS et al. An approach to policy-oriented monitoring of equity in health. 130 Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 9-13, 2002.


Foley KM, Gelband H (Eds.). Improving Palliative Care for Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/. Accessed on: Jul 9, 2002.

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